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Ric Ford

MacInTouch
I recently checked, and Sierra 10.12, High Sierra 10.13 and Mojave10.14 full installers were not showing up under my Apple ID in the Mac App Store (MAS) under Purchases, despite the fact I had downloaded them at the times they were released. I have those installers archived on backup external drives. ... Curiously, my Apple ID does show all earlier OS X installers Lion, Mountain Lion, Mavericks, Yosemite and El Capitan under my Apple ID/Purchases. All (but Yosemite) had actually been installed historically on the MacBook Pro internal drive and each in turn on top of the previous version.
I have downloaded and installed all Mac OS X versions since Mac OS X 10.4 or earlier (as well as all classic Mac OS versions!).

Running macOS 10.12.6 Sierra, the Mac App Store is showing, under Purchased, OS X 10.7 through OS X 10.11 with Download links. macOS 10.12 and later do not appear there.

Running macOS 10.14.1 Mojave, no earlier macOS or OS X versions are shown in the Mac App Store (only OS X Lion Server and macOS Server).
 


After many happy years, it's time to leave 'Snow Leopard' land. One problem: I can't. The App Store won't allow me to download El Cap (where I need to begin the journey) or Sierra (where I intend to land).
On which base system? There were systems dropped between Snow Leopard and El Capitan.

The other hiccup is that there could be a mismatch between the App Store API that is current and the old one that is on Snow Leopard (e.g., if he authentication is upgraded for a newer device and the Snow Leopard version of the store has no idea about that new method). Mac App Store was a late addition add-on to Snow Leopard (10.6.8); right at the very end. So as App Store evolved, that App Store instance was somewhat dead in the water.

That said, I've had to help some folks through some Apple ID problems with the iTunes Store (and App Store) where the ID is OK but the store has it in some other state (and the normal "reset ID" mechanism didn't clear out the problem).

A workaround is that, if you know someone else with a Mac (or have another newer Mac) that can download the El Cap installer, you can create a USB installer drive from that. Apple doesn't "do" DVDs anymore. However, you can "make your own" USB installer drive relatively easily.

Your system may predate when Apple started adding basic Internet Recovery to the firmware. If there is Internet recovery
then you could "reinstall" via the Option-⌘-R command onto an empty drive (a 64GB USB drive would probably do). I'm pretty sure it will ask "where" you want to install, but you shouldn't do it without a backup anyway (even more so in this context).

Using that "newest available" OS instance, grab the El Cap download (if it isn't El Cap already).
My registration is fine, but it tells me there are no paid orders on file for my account. So? The upgrades are free - there's no charge for them .
Even "free" stuff is marked as "purchased" in the Mac App Store. The bundled 'free' apps are also in the "Purchased" state.

The issue in part is that Apple drops access to superseded free stuff (especially their own). A decent standard practice would be to download the installer for the latest OS a couple of weeks before Apple releases a new OS. (That way, you get the 'last' installer image.) Just quit after the download if the installer automagically starts up. Once you have the image, you just need some local adjustments for the target Volume name in the scripts given here:

Reboot the system with the new USB drive to make sure it boots up OK. Quit the installer there and shutdown. Place the installer in a drawer for when you might need it later. (If it has been two or so years, plug in the USB drive and do a "first aid' on it to give it a 'workout'. )
 


Ric Ford

MacInTouch
The other hiccup is that there could be a mismatch between the App Store API that is current and the old one that is on Snow Leopard (e.g., if he authentication is upgraded for a newer device and the Snow Leopard version of the store has no idea about that new method). Mac App Store was a late addition add-on to Snow Leopard (10.6.8); right at the very end. So as App Store evolved, that App Store instance was somewhat dead in the water.
Apple issued an App Store update for Snow Leopard long after it issued any other updates (e.g. for security problems):
Apple Support said:
Mac App Store Update for OS X Snow Leopard
This update ensures future compatibility of the Mac App Store included with OS X Snow Leopard, and is recommended for all Snow Leopard users.
Apple Support said:
About the Mac App Store Update for OS X Snow Leopard
The Mac App Store Update for OS X Snow Leopard ensures future compatibility of the Mac App Store with OS X Snow Leopard. It is recommended for all Snow Leopard users.
This update:
  • Installs a renewed intermediate signing certificate required by the Mac App Store. The certificate ensures that you can continue to use the Mac App Store in Snow Leopard to purchase new apps and run any previously purchased apps that use receipt validation.
  • Includes improvements to Mac App Store alerts.
To get the Mac App Store Update for OS X Snow Leopard, choose Software Update from the Apple menu.
Published Date: September 13, 2018
 


Sierra 10.12, High Sierra 10.13 and Mojave10.14 full installers were not showing up under my Apple ID in the Mac App Store (MAS) under Purchases, despite the fact I had downloaded them at the times they were released
Wasn't there a discussion here some time ago about this? As I recall, somebody either heard or figured out that Apple was no longer treating OS downloads as App Store purchases beginning with Sierra. The net effect was to decouple macOS "ownership" from individual Apple IDs... and, for troubleshooting purposes, to require completists to maintain their own archives of Installers.
 


Wasn't there a discussion here some time ago about this? As I recall, somebody either heard or figured out that Apple was no longer treating OS downloads as App Store purchases beginning with Sierra. The net effect was to decouple macOS "ownership" from individual Apple IDs... and, for troubleshooting purposes, to require completists to maintain their own archives of Installers.
That's exactly what I'm seeing, too. Lion through El Capitan all show up under "purchased". Nothing [no macOS versions] after that.
 


After many happy years, it's time to leave 'Snow Leopard' land. One problem: I can't. The App Store won't allow me to download El Cap (where I need to begin the journey) or Sierra (where I intend to land).
There is a direct link to the Apple store for El Capitan in the Apple document How to upgrade to OS X El Capitan. This document states "OS X El Capitan remains available for Mac computers that can't upgrade to macOS Mojave, High Sierra, or Sierra, or that need to upgrade to El Capitan first."

That link is
and for me opens up the App Store.app on High Sierra with a download button available.

I would think that Apple should have a similar page named something like "How to upgrade to macOS High Sierra" since there are some Mac computers that can't upgrade to macOS Mojave, but I can't find it.

... Whoops, a bit more searching came up with How to upgrade to macOS High Sierra, which says "If you have hardware or software that isn't compatible with macOS Mojave, you might be able to upgrade to macOS High Sierra" and has the link:

I don't know if these links will open in every version of the Mac App Store.app or if they will work for every country (they do seem to be US links, but seem to work from Canada at least).

Since every machine that can run Sierra can also run High Sierra, Apple might have decided to not make the Sierra installer still available, but I have not searched to see if any Mac App Store.app links for Sierra are still viable.
 



The download mechanism for macOS changed, starting with Sierra. Even though delivery continues via the App Store, these are no longer "purchases" associated with an Apple ID. That's why, if you're on El Capitan or later, the button for macOS says "Download" instead of "Get", and you are not prompted for your Apple ID password, as was the case in the past.

As others have noted, the direct download pages for El Capitan, Sierra, and High Sierra are still available, and, for $20, Lion and Mountain Lion are available as well. (Mavericks and Yosemite are not available except for those who already had "purchased" them while they were available.)

For those comfortable with the command line, the tool "installinstallmacos.py" does a nice job of downloading recent full installer packages.
 


I am still using Mavericks on two systems, in part to keep my installations of Peak LE 6 functional. I am really not interested in putting in the time to learn a different application for my limited purposes, although I have a couple of other apps. Has anyone here upgraded beyond Mavericks and gotten Peak LE 6 to work with a later OS? I would like to move to Sierra on at least one of the systems.
 


Ric Ford

MacInTouch
Some information from Apple about various macOS installation options:
Apple Support said:
How to install macOS at your organization

If you're the system administrator for your organization, you can choose from a variety of macOS installation methods.

Before you install, make sure that your Mac is connected to the Internet, which allows installation of both macOS and any firmware updates available for your Mac.
 


Ric Ford

MacInTouch
I am still using Mavericks on two systems, in part to keep my installations of Peak LE 6 functional. I am really not interested in putting in the time to learn a different application for my limited purposes, although I have a couple of other apps. Has anyone here upgraded beyond Mavericks and gotten Peak LE 6 to work with a later OS? I would like to move to Sierra on at least one of the systems.
I've moved the replies to this over to the Audio thread...
 


I wanted to upgrade to Mojave on the internal fusion drive on a Mac Mini 2014. Started up with a Carbon Copy Cloner clone, macOS 10.13.6, on an external disk. Erasing the internal fusion drive with Disk Utility resulted in an error.

In the Disk Utility sidebar appeared one internal "Untitled" PCI Internal APFS Physical Store, 121 GB, and one internal "Untitled" SATA Internal APFS Physical Store, 1 TB, both greyed out, and an external, not-greyed-out, "Container disk2" labeled as "APFS container", 1.12 GB. The first two can not be mounted, and the third does not react to any Disk Utility command. Terminal command diskutil list shows:
/dev/disk0 (internal, physical): #:......................TYPE..NAME...............SIZE......IDENTIFIER 0:.....GUID_partition_scheme....................*1.0 TB....disk0 1:.......................EFI..EFI...............209.7 MB...disk0s1 2:................Apple_APFS..Container disk2...1000.0 GB..disk0s2
/dev/disk1 (internal, physical): #:......................TYPE..NAME...............SIZE......IDENTIFIER 0:.....GUID_partition_scheme....................*121.3 GB..disk1 1:.......................EFI..EFI...............209.7 MB...disk1s1 2:................Apple_APFS..Container disk2...121.1 GB...disk1s2
/dev/disk2 (synthesized): #:......................TYPE..NAME................SIZE.....IDENTIFIER 0:.....APFS Container Scheme..-..................+1.1 TB...disk2 ..............................Physical Stores disk0s2, disk1s2
/dev/disk3 (external, physical): #:......................TYPE..NAME................SIZE.....IDENTIFIER 0:.....GUID_partition_scheme.....................*1.0 TB...disk3 1:.......................EFI..EFI.................209.7 MB.disk3s1 2:.................Apple_HFS..Freecom 1TB.........999.2 GB.disk3s2 3:................Apple_Boot..Recovery HD.........784.2 MB.disk3s3
Disk3 is the macOS 10.13.6 external startup disk. Now what do I do?

I would rather not replace the internal disk. iFixit lists 35 disassembly steps just to get at it.
 


Ric Ford

MacInTouch
Started up with a Carbon Copy Cloner clone, macOS 10.13.6, on an external disk. Erasing the internal fusion drive with Disk Utility resulted in an error. ... Now what do I do?
Holding back my snark about running macOS 10.13 in the first place, I'll note that macOS 10.13 did not support APFS on fusion drives, while macOS 10.14 does with its new version of APFS. I guess that's how this mess started, by trying to use macOS 10.13 to format a fusion drive in APFS. (It probably would have been better to erase it into HFS+ format, leaving the Mojave installer to convert it to APFS.)

I wonder if you can build a bootable macOS 10.14 installer on an external flash drive or other spare drive (e.g. with DiskMaker X) then boot that, and use it to erase the APFS container fusion drive prior to installing Mojave.
 


I wanted to upgrade to Mojave on the internal fusion drive on a Mac Mini 2014. Started up with a Carbon Copy Cloner clone, macOS 10.13.6, on an external disk. Erasing the internal fusion drive with Disk Utility resulted in an error.

In the Disk Utility sidebar appeared one internal "Untitled" PCI Internal APFS Physical Store, 121 GB, and one internal "Untitled" SATA Internal APFS Physical Store, 1 TB, both greyed out, and an external, not-greyed-out, "Container disk2" labeled as "APFS container", 1.12 GB. The first two can not be mounted, and the third does not react to any Disk Utility command. Terminal command diskutil list shows:

Disk3 is the macOS 10.13.6 external startup disk. Now what do I do?

I would rather not replace the internal disk. iFixit lists 35 disassembly steps just to get at it.
The man page for diskutil mentions this option to reset the internal disks to a factory-like Fusion drive state.

resetFusion
For Fusion Drive machine hardware configurations, reset the disk devices in the machine to a factory-like state (one empty Fusion volume). This command requires the machine to contain exactly one internal solid-state device (SSD) and one internal rotational device (hard disk drive); if so, you are prompted, and if you confirm, both devices are (re)-partitioned with GPT maps and a Core Storage Fusion Drive volume is created. No system software is installed and no user data is restored. All data on the machine is lost, including any "extra" partitions (e.g. for Boot Camp or other "user" purposes). You generally must be booted from the Internet Recovery System (CMD-OPT-R) or from an externally-connected macOS boot disk (e.g. a USB drive), because you cannot erase a volume with a currently-running macOS. Ownership of the affected disks is required.​

So, typing sudo diskutil resetFusion should get you back on track. I don't use a Fusion drive, but I do have an internal SSD and hard disk drive; here's the output from my system.

sudo diskutil resetFusion
Internally-located hardware disk devices known to the currently-running macOS:
Rotational (disk1)
Solid State (disk0)
Volumes exported by partitions or storage systems hosted on the above devices:
Internal HD (disk1s2)
Macintosh SSD (disk2s1)
WARNING: All of the above will be erased
Do you want to continue? (Enter "Yes" to proceed to erase) NO
Operation aborted by user
 



I don't see any sign of that option in macOS 10.12 Sierra's diskutil man page. Were you referring to macOS 10.13 or 10.14?
Referring to macOS 10.14.2. Unfortunately, this command looks new to macOS 10.14; macOS 10.13.6's diskutil man page doesn't mention it, and I verified the command does not work. So unless Gilbert can start up from a macOS 10.14 volume, this won't help out.
 


The man page for diskutil mentions this option to reset the internal disks to a factory-like Fusion drive state.

resetFusion
For Fusion Drive machine hardware configurations, reset the disk devices in the machine to a factory-like state (one empty Fusion volume). ...​
I don't see any sign of that option in macOS 10.12 Sierra's diskutil man page. Were you referring to macOS 10.13 or 10.14?
Referring to macOS 10.14.2. Unfortunately, this command looks new to macOS 10.14; macOS 10.13.6's diskutil man page doesn't mention it, and I verified the command does not work. So unless Gilbert can start up from a macOS 10.14 volume, this won't help out.
Thank you all for your help!

I actually already had a disk with macOS 10.14.1 on it, so I used that as startup disk. However macOS 10.14.1 diskutil does not have resetFusion, so I had to update it to macOS 10.14.2. And, lo and behold, it has resetFusion and it worked! Whew!

One would have expected macOS 10.13.6 diskutil to have a warning about fusion drives.
 


Thank you all for your help!
I actually already had a disk with macOS 10.14.1 on it, so I used that as startup disk. However macOS 10.14.1 diskutil does not have resetFusion, so I had to update it to macOS 10.14.2. And, lo and behold, it has resetFusion and it worked! Whew!
One would have expected macOS 10.13.6 diskutil to have a warning about fusion drives.
This implies that the fusion drive, at least with this command, requires a spinning hard disk. I would like to change out the SATA spinning hard disk to a SATA SSD and restore the fusion drive system.
 




I would think that replacing the existing SATA spinning hard disk in the fusion array with a SATA SSD would speed up the fusion array.
The Fusion system would be faster were the original 5400-RPM hard disk drive replaced with an SSD.

The way Apple's Fusion system works is to interactively and continuously move "most used" files (which will be OS files and maybe application segments and data files) between the two components. That imposes overhead. A pure SSD solution will be faster.

Over in the Windows world, Intel's Optane is a very-low-latency variety of SSD. Small-sized Optane drives are used much as Apple does [with a small SSD] to speed hard drives. Optane has now reached capacity size sufficient for consumer system drives and in its highest-end servers, where extremely fast access is critical.

Windows gaming benchmark tests reports the "first run" of a program on an Optane-equipped system is slower than subsequent ones. That's because the Optane has to be "filled." In Apple's Fusion, it is always being both filled and emptied.
 


Ric Ford

MacInTouch
Windows gaming benchmark tests reports the "first run" of a program on an Optane-equipped system is slower than subsequent ones. That's because the Optane has to be "filled." In Apple's Fusion, it is always being both filled and emptied.
Note that Mojave APFS changed Apple's fusion system to work in a different way.
 


Note that Mojave APFS changed Apple's fusion system to work in a different way.
Ars Technica said:
macOS 10.14 Mojave: The Ars Technica review
. . . Fusion Drives can now move files to the SSD based not just on how frequently they’re accessed, but also based on how much the type of file will benefit from an SSD . . . the APFS “copy-on-write” feature, which among other things makes it easier to create disk snapshots and keep track of the different versions of different files, means that little bits of files are always being written all over the disk instead of being kept together in one contiguous chunk.
Ars goes on to speculate how the Fusion version of APFS is coping with the "little bits of files" always being written all over the disk, but had no firm answer.

Whatever the Fusion system is doing on APFS, it's busy. That's overhead that can be avoided if the entirety of MacOS, applications, and data files are stored on one SSD sans Fusion.

I tried to find current benchmarks of Fusion drive performance. Like much tech, it got a lot of attention when introduced and isn't getting much, if any, now. Didn't find any benchmarks of a "Fusion SSD+SSD."

As a heads-up, I did stumble into some months-old forum posts by users who had replaced their Fusion HDDs with SSDs and had trouble installing Mojave. Didn't follow up to see if that had and been solved, but both Samsung and OWC SSDs were mentioned.
 


I have an iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, Late 2014) with a 3TB Fusion drive that I tried updating to Mojave from High Sierra a few weeks ago. On reboot, the system crawled—just a menu drop down in Finder took more than five seconds. Launching a simple application would take several minutes. I rebooted in Single User mode and it seemed maybe marginally quicker but still so slow as to be unusable.

I booted in Recovery mode and ran Disk Utility twice. No change. I reinstalled Mojave (via Recovery); this also didn't help.

I erased the drive and installed a new copy of Mojave and imported my data from a Time Machine backup. Now the iMac took about 10 minutes to boot, at which point (before it got to Finder) it would reboot, and keep doing so endlessly. Again, Single User mode, Disk Utility, and reinstalling Mojave didn't help.

So I booted off an external High Sierra drive, reformatted the disk in HFS+, and reinstalled the newest pre-Mojave backup (oddly, there were a couple of Mojave backups to choose from... I can't imagine when or how they were created).

I've been ignoring the prompts to update ever since.
 


I have an iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, Late 2014) with a 3TB Fusion drive that I tried updating to Mojave from High Sierra a few weeks ago. On reboot, the system crawled—just a menu drop down in Finder took more than five seconds. Launching a simple application would take several minutes. I rebooted in Single User mode and it seemed maybe marginally quicker but still so slow as to be unusable.
I booted in Recovery mode and ran Disk Utility twice. No change. I reinstalled Mojave (via Recovery); this also didn't help.
I erased the drive and installed a new copy of Mojave and imported my data from a Time Machine backup. Now the iMac took about 10 minutes to boot, at which point (before it got to Finder) it would reboot, and keep doing so endlessly. Again, Single User mode, Disk Utility, and reinstalling Mojave didn't help.
So I booted off an external High Sierra drive, reformatted the disk in HFS+, and reinstalled the newest pre-Mojave backup (oddly, there were a couple of Mojave backups to choose from... I can't imagine when or how they were created).
I've been ignoring the prompts to update ever since.
Scott, I had the exact same experience. After an update from High Sierra to macOS 10.14.2, I saw the same excruciating slowness. When I could bring up System Info, I discovered that the drivers for Ethernet and WiFi has been clobbered by the migration that I performed after update from a Time Machine restore. Long story short, the restore was causing removal of the drivers.

Apple helped with suggestions, but the only thing that worked was a clean install of Mojave after an erase of the Fusion drive. Once installed, I avoided the offer of the Time Machine restore. The iMac then booted fine.

After that, I mounted the Time Machine drive and manually copied my data files. The iMac is now fine. There is definitely a bug in the migration code.

I can’t believe we are alone. This will turn out to be a weird bug. Hopefully, Apple will find it soon. Until then, no user-level restore by me.
 


I have an iMac (Retina 5K, 27-inch, Late 2014) with a 3TB Fusion drive that I tried updating to Mojave from High Sierra a few weeks ago. On reboot, the system crawled—just a menu drop down in Finder took more than five seconds. Launching a simple application would take several minutes. I rebooted in Single User mode and it seemed maybe marginally quicker but still so slow as to be unusable.
Scott, I had the exact same experience. After an update from High Sierra to macOS 10.14.2, I saw the same excruciating slowness. When I could bring up System Info, I discovered that the drivers for Ethernet and WiFi has been clobbered by the migration that I performed after update from a Time Machine restore. Long story short, the restore was causing removal of the drivers.
I just spent an unbelievably long time figuring out a similar sounding problem for my brother-in-law while visiting over Christmas. Older iMac 21" with a 5400-RPM spinning drive, symptoms as described above.

The culprit turned out to be an /etc/sysctl.conf file left over from some earlier version of the operating system, which was still fine for macOS 10.13 but was setting macOS 10.14 kernel variables in a way that would cause the main OS configuration daemon program configd to crash. Two key upshots of this were that a) the machine was incredibly slow and b) the network interfaces never got configured, and so appeared to be missing completely.

So a suggestion would be that if you find yourself in the situation above, check for the existence of a file /etc/sysctl.conf using the terminal or some other utility, and, if you find it exists and don't know why, delete it.

(This file does not exist in a clean macOS 10.14 install, so there should be no harm in deleting an old one unless you have some specific need to be setting sysctl variables. If you do have that need, hopefully you can figure out how to update whatever it is you're doing for macOS 10.14. It seems that the 10.14 migration daemon will blindly copy this file over from old systems or backups without any checking or updating, which was the trigger for the problem I found..)

As a side note, I was actually rather surprised by how well macOS 10.14.2 ran from a slow spinning drive converted to APFS, once we finally got the machine fixed. I wouldn't exactly call it fast, but the machine's owners found it entirely usable and didn't claim to notice any real difference from earlier systems.
 


I finally installed High Sierra on my mid-2010 Mac Mini yesterday evening. It was so slow that I went to bed and got up in the morning to finish up. That stage was surprisingly quick and easy, but installing the series of November upgrades wound up taking an inordinate amount of time and multiple restarts, largely managed by the machine.

I had some problems with setting up two-factor authentication, which requires you to sign out of iCloud to recover access to iCloud. iCloud asks you to save copies of iCloud documents to your hard disk, which seems like a good idea, but it does not seem able to save anything, perhaps because it removed your access to iCloud when it set up two-factor authentication. It did that even when I had said I didn't want to save any of the four options given (iCloud Drive, Contacts, Calendars, and Notes as I recall). I had to restart the Mac to be able to sign out and then sign back in to get authentication. Rather annoying.
 


I ran into an email problem that I didn't notice immediately after the upgrade to High Sierra (and which could have come from the November upgrades). Apple Mail lost track of what signatures I used with what email accounts, which I didn't notice until I happened to look at the bottom of an outgoing email and saw nothing there. I had to go back and reinstall the signatures on several (but apparently not all) of my email accounts.
 


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